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Krell; in: Nietzsche i, New York , James E. Faulconer and Mark A. Wrathall, Cambridge , Because Baeumler in his study, Nietzsche, der Philosoph und Politiker, criticized Nietzsche for his biolo According to Baeumler, biologism is the doctrine that everything, including consciousness, can be traced back to life-processes. He granted that if Nietzsche had considered life an empirical fact, as biology does, then his philosophy would have been a uniquely monstrous biologism.
Baeumler, Nietzsche, der Philosoph und Politiker, Capuzzi; in: Nietzsche iv, San Francisco , Heidegger, Wegmarken, GA 9, ; Pathmarks, However, although Heidegger thereby Heidegger, Sein und Zeit, 46; Being and Time, Heidegger, Sein und Zeit, ; Being and Time, However, this does not mean that Heidegger was engaged in an effort to segregate metaphysics from biology. He knew that Nietzsche not only employed the language of contemporary biology, but was also well informed about it. Indeed, in his notes for his seminar on Nie I shall show rather that Heidegger sought to demonstrate that an appreciation of the history of being provides a broader perspective from which to view not just biological thinking but the historical context which sustained it, a perspective that saw a certain necessity or logic in history.
In The Will to Power as Art Heidegger suggested that Nietzsche spoke the language of physiology and biology only in order to make his account of the aesthetic state accessible to his contemporaries. Heidegger, Nietzsche Seminare, GA 87, Alfred Baeumler, Stuttgart , sec.
Even so, this account does not constitute a critique or even a confrontation in the conventional sense of those words. What it does do is to offer a diagnosis of the contemporary situation that allows it to be seen more broadly. There is here a crucial example of that transformation of our relation to philosophical problems and alternatives, such as biologism and mechanism, that Heidegger sought to bring about in his later thinking through the introduction of the term Machenschaft.
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It was through an understanding of how the cataclysmic events of his time were organized around the notion of life that Heidegger came to understand Machenschaft. But if the condition becomes unconditional, then what comes to power is not-wanting a goal and cutting off any mindfulness that reaches ahead.
This essay was not published until , but it was written and delivered as a lecture in And yet in claiming to offer a confrontation with and spiritual resistance to National Socialism, Heidegger plays on that ambiguity. By initially defending Nietzsche against the charge of biologism only to locate him within the history of Western metaphysics, Heidegger in a double movement elevated Nietzsche above his biologistic contemporaries the better to circumscribe him more forcefully in another way.
Neither Nietzsche, nor the philosophers of life of the early twentieth century, pointed far enough ahead of them. This becomes clear if one reads those lectures in the context of the contemporary manuscript, Die Geschichte des Seyns, in which he conceded that all attempts to refute biologism are worthless. In consequence, the motivation for saving Nietzsche from the charge of biologistic thinking by characterizing his thinking as metaphysical cannot Heidegger offered a powerful diagnosis of the ills of his time, but it left little or no room for a political response that was capable of combating it.
Introduction What it means to be human is rapidly becoming again the predominant question in academic discourse. As postmodernism, the great slayer of subjectivity, is tottering on its last leg, philosophers, theologians and cultural critics are once again busy discussing the essence of our humanity.
Heidegger and Levinas have emerged as the two most prominent conversation partners in this discussion, because both chart a course beyond modernist ideas of selfhood by defining subjectivity as transcendence in terms of a post-metaphysical humanism. Each, however, approaches this common goal from a radically different perspective. According to Heidegger, any effort to uncover the true essence of our humanity involves a return to early Greek thought with its openness to being.
Levinas challenges this Greek paradigm by suggesting a post-metaphysical, theologically inspired ethical subjectivity. Nietzsche fails to understand their proper relation because by assigning being a value, even if it is the highest value, namely the principle of the will to power, he still devalues Being by objectifying 2. This humanism defines subjectivity as transcendent freedom. For Heidegger, human existence is transcendent because it stands in the ontological difference as the only be8. Human existence stands out from any other as ek-sistence.
This unique form of existence is reflected in human language, which is not so much a means of selfexpression as it is a correspondence to the event of being, to the ontological difference in which world and things show themselves. In his lecture course Vom Wesen der menschlichen Freiheit of summer semester , Heidegger insists that a proper definition of our humanity depends on recognizing the question of being as the foundational question of philosophy. This recognition reveals that freedom and transcendence do not merely depend on but actually are our openness to being itself.
Heidegger claims that the essence of our humanity cannot be derived from self-analysis, as classical humanism was wont to do, but from our relation to Being.
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Heidegger tells us that if humanism is to think the nature of our humanity Wesen , his philosophy classifies as a humanism because we are most essentially human when we pursue Being. He then also reshapes another central humanist theme, concern for human dignity, in the image of Being because Heidegger believes that traditional humanisms failed in establishing human dignity. The truly human subject originates within social categories and is expressed primarily as ethical obligation to others and to the world. Existents are reduced to the neuter state of idea, Being, the concept.
The ontological difference cannot be thought in theoretical fashion but only as the process of interpreting our historical modes of being.
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For Heidegger, transcendence is the openness of human beings to Being itself, the nature of which he does not qualify. For Levinas, by contrast, transcendence is defined not by our relation to Being but the prior ethical relation to another human being. Heidegger remains fascinated with his primary insight that being itself gives rise to the ontological difference and so grants to human beings the central un Emmanuel Levinas, Totality and Infinity, trans.
Conversations with Philippe Nemo, Pittsburg , Die Seinsgeschichte aber ist eben die Ge-. He argues against our enslavement to abstract concepts and advocates a stance of freedom for responsibility in the face of death. By replacing responsibility to the other with responsibility to Being, Levinas points out, Heidegger allows for the rationalization of inhuman practices. As long as human being is in any way the reflective site for a greater, impersonal reality i.
Paradoxically, in Levinas self-identity and self-knowledge begin not Emmanuel Levinas, Otherwise Than Being, trans.
Smitch, New York , We do not discover the essence of our humanity when we open our eyes or ears to Being but when we sense, in the midst of enjoyment and the cares of life, the ethical obligation to our neighbor. Levinas tries to show in detailed phenomenological analyses of consciousness, memory, and time that at the heart of human existence we find inexplicable limiting experiences rather than control and mastery.
Rather than correlation and sameness, we find disruption and breach, which point us to ethical transcendence as the origin of all human communication and meaning. Conclusion When we compare Levinas and Heidegger carefully by attending to their work as a whole, we find that both reject an autonomous self and timeless, universal reason. Moreover, both strive to overcome subjectivism and define human being as freedom and transcendence. The crucial difference between them is that Heidegger grounds human identity in our relation to Being while Levinas derives human identity from our pre-ontological ethical relation to other human beings.
Yet one nagging question remains concerning this accommodating interpretation. Has not Heidegger himself attuned us to the power of language as an address of Being? And if language unveils, at least to some degree, how things are, whose language appears more human? Heidegger insists that the essence of humanity lies in our service to being. Are we to measure our dignity by an impersonal entity or by a deity whose primary concern is justice? After all, nothing less than the meaning of freedom, truth, and humanity depends on how we answer this question.
I am no man, I am dynamite. The concept of politics then merges completely with a war of spirits [Geisterkrieg], all the power structures of the old society having been exploded, since they are all based on lies: there will be wars as there never yet have been on earth. It is first with me that there is grand politics on the earth. It was in the aftermath of the outbreak of the First World War that the still very Catholic young Heidegger first had occasion to quote Nietzsche.
Heidegger will soon translate this millennial mendacity of nihilism into millennia of the oblivion of being by way of the long Occidental tradition of a metaphysics of constant presence, where this metaphysics itself is to be overcome along 1. Friedrich Nietzsche, Wille zur Macht, Vorrede, 2. I am indebted to Alfred Denker for this reference.
The ultimate thrust of this meditation on the sense and direction of the present historical situation of nihilism is a redirection of historical humanity toward its grandest potential. Karl Jaspers, Nietzsche. Wallraff and F. Jaspers sent a copy of the first edition of his book to Heidegger in early Only in that way can historical Da-sein take root and flourish in the realm opened and identified by the goal. Heidegger, Nietzsche I, ; Nietzsche i, Cited according to Guido Schneeberger, Nachlese zur Heidegger.
Dokumente zu seinem Leben und Denken, Bern , What sets the standards for greatness? Answer: the grand style, which provides the standards for grand politics. Rather, it is measured by the degree to which the artist approaches the grand style, to which he is capable of the grand style. That style has this in common with grand passion, that it disdains to please; that it forgets about persuading; that it commands, that it wills. Native to the Greeks is the holy passion of the heavenly fire; their allotted historical task is the binding of unbound rapture and 11 12 13 14 Nietzsche, Der Wille zur Macht, n.
German historical Dasein has the opposite task. For its native endowment is the clarity of representation and the ability to order to the point of stringent systematic organization, so that its appointed task is to infuse this order with the fire of passion, of being affected and moved by archaic be-ing. Will we understand this mark?
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One thing is certain: history will wreak vengeange on us if we do not. The shift constitutes a counter-thrust to the totalitarian direction that National Socialism in fact took. To this site of history belong the gods, the temples, the priests, the celebrations, the games, the poets, the thinkers, the ruler, the council of elders, the assembly of the people, the armed forces and the ships. All this does not first belong to the polis, is not first political, because it enters into a relationship with a statesman and a general and with the affairs of state.
Rather, what we have named is political, that is, at the site of history, insofar as, for example, the poets are only poets, but then are actually poets, the thinkers are only thinkers, but then are actually thinkers, the priests are only priests, but then are actually priests, the rulers are only rulers, but then are actually rulers. Are: but this says: to use their power as violence-doers and to rise to eminent stature in historical being as creators, as doers.
Rising to a supreme stature in the site of history, they also become apolis, without city and site, lonesome, uncanny, with no way out amidst beings as a 22 Poets and thinkers, statesmen and prophets are gathered together in lonely, untimely, tragic, and contentious dialogue at this core of history, Dasein. To be truly political is to be at the site of history, Dasein in its root facticity and possibility, which in each of its epochal instantiations is ours hereandnow.
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