Discussion The data from this random national sample of French adult prisoners in 23 prisons, including short and long term sentences, highlights the following: 1. These two groups also differed from other prisoners regarding some of these variables Strengths and limits of the study One strong point of this national random study is that all types of prisoners were assessed, and not only prisoners on remand or incoming prisoners, and that it involved the different types of French prison settings which vary considerably in terms of security, length of sentence, etc.
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Prevalence of alcohol and drug abuse or dependence in prison The first point to be made is that psychiatric disorder prevalence rates found in this study are higher than most of those already published. Comparison with the British national study of substance misuse in prison When compared with the aforementioned British national study of substance misuse in prison [ 14 - 17 ], the conclusions are quite similar.
Comparison with the general population When compared to the available national data on drug use in the French general population, our data are unequivocal and show that addicts are overwhelmingly overrepresented in prisons: 2. Psychopathology: comorbid psychiatric disorders Concerning psychiatric co-morbidity, only prisoners with an AAD seem to have greater vulnerability, restricted to current mood disorder, an already well-established association in general population [ 27 ]. Psychopathology: temperament and character Some personality features have been commonly linked to patients with SUD, the most salient variables being novelty-seeking [ 30 , 31 ], impulsivity, and low harm avoidance [ 32 , 33 ].
Childhood history Prisoners with DAD had suffered more frequently from childhood separation and trauma other than ill-treatment. Imprisonment characteristics Imprisonment characteristics were also different. Public health and policy implications Money and human resources allocated to mental health programmes in prison are very limited in most European countries.
Methods Study design In the year , the French ministries of health and justice decided to make prevalence estimates for mental disorders in French prisons. Selection of prisons There are three types of prison in France.
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Data collection, diagnosis procedure Each prisoner was interviewed for approximately 2 hours by a group of 2 clinicians clinical psychologist or psychiatrist. Ethics This study was considered as having a direct individual benefit according to CCPPRB French ethical committee decision since a procedure to signal prisoners to the prison medical team was provided for in two cases: in case of psychiatric emergency particularly high risk of suicide , with or without the permission of the patient, and in cases where psychiatric disorders were deemed serious, only with the permission of the prisoners.
Statistical analysis Statistical analyses were performed with SAS 8. Competing interests The author s declare that they have no competing interests. Authors' contributions M. L participated to the design, the statistic and the draft of this paper B. F participated to the design and the statistic of this paper I. G participated to the design and the draft of this paper X. N participated to secondary statistical analysis L.
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M criticaly revised this paper and gave expert opinion M. R criticaly revised this paper and gave expert opinion.
Acknowledgements French Ministery of Health. Substance use in remand prisoners: a consecutive case study. Benign neglect or neglected abuse: drug and alcohol withdrawal in U. J Law Med Ethics. Paris, France, ; Recognition and treatment of alcohol use disorders in US jails. Psychiatr Serv. In: Annual report the state of the drugs problem in the European Union and Norway. Luxembourg, ; Paris, ; Social and health status of arrivals in a French prison: a consecutive case study from to Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. Point prevalence of mental disorder in unconvicted male prisoners in England and Wales.
Mental health in Prison Popualtions. A review with special emphasis on a study of danish prisoners on remand. Acta Psychiatr Scand.
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Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in New Zealand prisons: a national study. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. Substance use disorders among men in prison: a New Zealand study. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. Drugs and prisonners : treatment needs on entering prison. In: Substance misuse among prisonners in England and Wales. Statistic ON, editor. London, ; Psychosis in the community and in prisons: a report from the British National Survey of psychiatric morbidity. Am J Psychiatry.
Psychosis and drug dependence: results from a national survey of prisoners. Br J Psychiatry. Drug use and initiation in prison: results from a national prison survey in England and Wales. Drug abuse of Finnish male prisoners in Forensic Sci Int. Psychological correlates of frequency and type of drug use among jail inmates. Addict Behav. A history of drug use and childhood sexual abuse among incarcerated males in a county jail. Subst Use Misuse. Substance misuse as a marker of vulnerability among male prisoners on remand.
Self-reported substance misuse in Greek male prisoners. Eur Addict Res. Psychiatric co-morbidity among male heroin addicts: differences between hospital and incarcerated subjects in Taiwan. Serious mental disorder in prisoners: a systematic review of 62 surveys. Paris, Observatoire Francais des drogues et toxicomanies; The reality of comorbidity: Depression and drug abuse.
Biol Psychiatry. Is cannabis use a contributory cause of psychosis? Can J Psychiatry. Exploring the association between cannabis use and depression. In: Thomas , editor. Etiological aspects of alcohol and drug abuse. Springfield, ; A systematic method for clinical and description and classification of personnality variant. Arch Gen Psychiatry. Personnality profil an drug of choice : a multivariate anlaysis using cloninger's TCI on heroin addicts, alcoholics, and a random population group. Drug Alcohol Depend.
Personality and comorbidity of common psychiatric disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry. A seller in an artificial plant shop told the story of a young woman who had bought a yucca. She noticed that when she watered it the plant seemed to come to life and its leaves quivered. She was worried and sought help: the fire brigade, the police or a specialist from the Museum of Natural Science ordered her to get to a safe place and took the plant to be burnt because it contained trapdoor spiders whose venom could have killed her.
The consequences of this story were in particular a huge drop in yucca sales and a significant loss of income for shopkeepers. He or she rejects her behaviour, namely her interest in her appearance which is associated with dirtiness, and presents its disastrous and unenviable consequences. The elderly woman is at fault and the teller rejects or even makes fun of her, implicitly advising the reader not to make the same mistakes.
Laughing or being disgusted about the same misfortune has the effect of placing the teller and reader in the same community of judgment.
For example, it is said that there are no longer any donkeys in Josaphat Park since a police constable caught a Turk in the middle of a sexual act with one of them. The foreign identity of the anti-hero in particular allows one to distance oneself from him and to identify more with the police constable or the narrator, who seem to share the same conservative sexual values which are dominant in contemporary society.
These stories are entertaining in particular because some of them are funny. However, they also have the effect of giving a meaning to events, offering advice or reducing anxiety by indicating a danger as well as the time and place of its occurrence. As such, they meet a need for certainty and predictability. They create meaning and support values such as mutual help or security. They also allow identity building and reassertion as there are always two groups in opposition in the story: the first is that of the valued character for example, the innocent victim in warning legends as well as that of the narrators of the urban legend and the recipients of the story, who share moral values and the same humour.
It is in the refusal to identify with this other community that the latter may assert themselves. This behaviour may have economic, sociocultural or even political consequences. The shops implicated in the stories of child abduction therefore experienced a loss of customers which had an impact on their turnover.
Certain stories which refer to the offender in terms of ethnic or national identity may be used when expressing hateful views in order to reinforce fears. This is what happened with our examples as they adapted to Brussels by mentioning well-known places in the city and by changing some guarantees of authenticity or even the identity of the belittled character.
This allows legends to be internationalised while allowing readers to maintain a feeling of proximity with the events and the characters presented in them. This feeling will, among others, allow the recipients of the story to identify with the latter, favouring some of their affects such as fear and influencing their reactions and acts. However, this has a significant impact on the representation of the city in these stories. Brussels acquires an impersonal identity as none of its specificities are used in the scenario of these stories.
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