The State of Tax Policy in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Newly Independent States (NIS): 93


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Representative [D] Indiana. Tom Lantos U. Representative [D] California. Frank McCloskey U.

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Jan Meyers U. Representative [R] Kansas. Toby Roth U. Representative [R] Wisconsin. Thomas Simons Analyst Department of State. Lawrence H. More information about U. Aid to Russia.

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Purchase a Download U. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content. By continuing, you agree to the use of cookies. To learn more, visit our Cookies page. This page was processed by aws-apollo4 in 0. Skip to main content. Copy URL. Abstract The purpose of this paper is to examine the economic aspects of EU policy towards its Eastern neighbors in the former Soviet Union.

Register to save articles to your library Register. Paper statistics. Paul B. Even before the runoffs scheduled for 21 November, the CUG has secured an absolute majority of the seats. The CUG failed to gain an absolute majority in half of the electoral districts and lost the important cities of Tbilisi, Kutaisi, Rustavi, and Senaki to opposition coalitions. Currently, Georgia consists of twelve large administrative regions, including the former Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia and the Autonomous Republic of Ach'ara Adzharia.


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Based on historical units of the Middle Ages, there are significant economic and cultural differences between them. The Samegrelo—Zemo Svaneti region, for example, contains mostly Svans and Mingrelians who speak their own languages at home as well as Georgian. Although ethnically Georgian, Ach'ara is up to 50 percent Muslim. Historically, there has been a divide between the eastern and western districts of the country.

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Before the nineteenth century, when Russia began to annex Georgian territories, both western and eastern Georgia were influenced by Byzantium; in the west, the Ottoman world had significant influence, too, but in the east, Iran was stronger. Much of the data on the Union is based on interviews with prominent members such as Gogi Topadze Tbilisi, July , Beso Jugheli Tbilisi, July , Zurab Tqmeladze Tbilisi, July , and officials or parliamentarians who have dealings with them, such as Lado P'ap'ava, minister of the economy Tbilisi, July ; Davit Onoprishvili, chairman of the parliamentary Committee on Economic Policy and Reforms Tbilisi, July and August ; and other informants in Georgian administrative structures.

Topadze's claims concerning 15—20 parliamentary representatives were contradicted by both Davit Onoprishvili and Beso Jugheli president of the Union who put the number at 5—10 and 3, respectively. Beso Jugheli, member of parliament and Union member, confirmed that the Union financed his electoral campaign. Interview with Beso Jugheli, Tbilisi, July I interviewed the directors of two of the largest manufacturing combines: Nik'o Tskhak'aia of Samto—Kimia chemical production in Tbilisi, August ; Vakht'ang Ch'eishvili of the Rustavi Metallurgical combine in Rustavi, August ; and Avtandil Lobshanidze, deputy commercial director of Azot a sulfur and ammonia producing concern in Rustavi in Rustavi, August Many of these firms would go bankrupt without government credit.

This was the argument of Nik'o Tskhak'aia, director of Samto—Kimia, a major chemical concern in Tbilisi. Despite such opposition, at a meeting of the President's Economic Council on 8 December it was decided to halve the excise rate on alcoholic beverages; the tax on jewelry was reduced three times. This suggests that the union's campaign paid off. Covering only 3—4 percent of its gross domestic product in taxes in made Georgia one of the least efficient tax collectors in the world.

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By , this was up to 7. Georgian Economic Trends Tbilisi, fourth quarter , Dziritadi sap'rogramop'rintsip'ebi Tbilisi, , esp. Interview with Vasik'o Maghlaperidze, Tbilisi, June Newspapers were a regular source of information for 53 percent of the respondents.

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Rustavi Two was still operating in June The news programs of Rustavi Two and Sakartvelos Khma, the two most prominent independent stations, are generally more popular than the official news reports of the two state channels. Tamaz Lobshanidze also provided information on this issue. For figures on the Soviet industrial workforce in Georgia in the s, see Narodnoe khoziaistvo gruzinskoi SSR v godu: Statisticheskii ezhegodnik Tbilisi, , — Between and , Georgia's total material product total production excluding services declined by 80 percent, and in economic activity in the republic had declined to one—third of its level.

In , the government laid off one—third of its employees. Vakht'ang Ch'eishvili, director of the Rustavi Metallurgical factory, estimated that of his 9, employees, approximately 5 percent actually work. Much of the information on the association comes from two interviews with its elected chairman, Irakli Tughushi, Tbilisi, July and June A copy was given to me by Irakli Tughushi.

For the general agreement, see Generaluri shetankhmeba sakartvelos respublik'is ministrta k'abinet'sa da sakartvelos p'rop'esiuli k'avshirebis gaertianebas shoris Tbilisi, This case is now in the Supreme Court Soso Katsitadze has claimed trade union property for his own breakaway trade union federation—the Amalgamation of Georgian Trade Unions. Forty two per cent considered themselves to be trade union members, but only few of them have succeeded in giving the exact name of the organization they belong to.

The author has a copy. Interview with Bak'ur Gulua, minister of agriculture, Tbilisi, July By contrast, Georgian Economic Trends Tbilisi, third quarter , 4, suggests that the state still owns 76 percent of agricultural land and 89 percent of all land. These low private ownership figures can be partly explained by the fact that agricultural land comprises only 43 percent of Georgia's total area and that Abkhazia and South Ossetia have remained outside the privatization program.

Agricultural output rose 9. Non—Georgian minorities have always presented the Georgian government with problems. In the s, for example, during Shevardnadze's tenure as Georgia's communist party boss, the Abkhazians pressured the Georgian government into numerous concessions on language instruction, educational rights, and representation within Abkhazia's executive and legislative bodies. The CUG is the party that is most sensitive to minority support; in it held a Minorities Congress.

For example, the Armenian community secured a concession concerning the Law on the Referendum. For the first five years after the bill was passed, any referendum could be in the local language, but thereafter, by which time ethnic minorities should have learned Georgian, referendums could be in the state language only. Mouradian claimed the Armenian community had considerable input on the bill on national minorities, which has not yet been passed.

Interview with Genrikh Mouradian, Tbilisi, July The Russian presence here, which has created a local ruble economy in Akhalkalaki and employs most of the local male Armenian population, has forced the Georgian government to adopt a particularly cautious policy. Some newspapers in the Armenian Republic have called for Akhalkalaki to be annexed to Armenia, a reminder to the Georgian government that tactless Georgianization policies could lead to another secessionist conflict. Adilpasha Rostomogli of Birlik, the Azeri Cultural and Charitable Society in Georgia, was particularly helpful in articulating the Azeri point of view.

Human Development Report: Georgia , The Svans and Mingrelians are regionally based Georgian groups who have maintained their own languages, which are unintelligible to other Georgians.

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Such corrupt networks remain a serious problem even in the most respectable democracies, as the savings and loan scandal of the s in the United States demonstrated. When reading this book, I was struck by the many similarities between Italian and Georgian politics. This book had an important influence on this article. For an excellent discussion of corruption and the challenges it presents to democracy, see Diamond and Plattner, eds.

Przeworski, Democracy and the Market , The indigenous NGO community has begun to produce its own newsletters and conference proceedings. International Society for Fair Elections monitored the November elections and a November plebiscite held among internally displaced persons and refugees in Georgia from the Abkhazian conflict of — It was not permitted, however, to monitor the September elections in the Autonomous Republic of Ach'ara, which is still under the tight control of Asian Abashidze.

updibotor.tk For the society's unfavorable report of Georgian elections, see Parliamentary and Presidential Elections in Georgia Tbilisi, November

The State of Tax Policy in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Newly Independent States (NIS): 93 The State of Tax Policy in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Newly Independent States (NIS): 93
The State of Tax Policy in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Newly Independent States (NIS): 93 The State of Tax Policy in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Newly Independent States (NIS): 93
The State of Tax Policy in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Newly Independent States (NIS): 93 The State of Tax Policy in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Newly Independent States (NIS): 93
The State of Tax Policy in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Newly Independent States (NIS): 93 The State of Tax Policy in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Newly Independent States (NIS): 93
The State of Tax Policy in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Newly Independent States (NIS): 93 The State of Tax Policy in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Newly Independent States (NIS): 93
The State of Tax Policy in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Newly Independent States (NIS): 93 The State of Tax Policy in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Newly Independent States (NIS): 93
The State of Tax Policy in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Newly Independent States (NIS): 93 The State of Tax Policy in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Newly Independent States (NIS): 93
The State of Tax Policy in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Newly Independent States (NIS): 93 The State of Tax Policy in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Newly Independent States (NIS): 93
The State of Tax Policy in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Newly Independent States (NIS): 93 The State of Tax Policy in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Newly Independent States (NIS): 93

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